I've listed down some important questions I've found from different sources that you can ask next time you're in that situation.
1. What are the top 3 qualities that a person needs to be successful on this job?
2. What would I do on a typical workday? -- if the interviewer says something like "every day is different", you may want to watch out as this may cause confusion about your responsibilities. Ask the interviewer to mention the kinds of the things you might do over a period of a week or a month.
3. What is a typical career path for this job?
4. How will I be trained or introduced to the job? -- You need to find out if they expect you to be that independent by being on your own your very first day or if there's a plan for getting you up and running successfully.
5. What are the goals and objectives of the company in the months ahead?
6. Who would I work with and how big is the team I would be working with?
7. What hours do people typically work? -- Some people like getting to work at 9 or 10am but if the company expects you to be in at 7 or 8, then there might be a mismatch. You also need to find out how much people work--do they clock out after 8 hours or is working long hours expected.
8. How would my job performance be evaluated? If I meet or exceed expectations, will there be additional opportunities to expand my responsibilities? -- Most, if not all companies, have a process for performance evaluations. You should be able to get a clear answer to this.
9. What can you tell me about the culture and the environment?
10. What are the next steps? -- Ask whether there will be another round of interviews or if you are to hear back from them at a certain date.